General John. J. Pershing organized and led the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) during WWI. Slow in organizing, but quick to learn how to fight on the Western Front battlefields in France and Belgium, Pershings troops, nicknamed doughboys, made an immediate contribution when they began to arrive and turned the tide of the war in favor of the Allies. They were victorious at Cantigny, Belleau Wood, St. Mihiel, St. Quentin Canal, and the 47-day Meuse-Argonne offensive. When the Armistice took effect at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918, more than 2 million soldiers, sailors, marines, nurses, telephone operators, and civilians were serving in Europe. Additional troops fought in faraway Siberia. Another 2 million troops were still in the United States, preparing to serve overseas, but the Armistice arrived before they could go abroad.