Together with Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach was among the most important 16th-century German painters. His oeuvre includes religious compositions as well as portraits and mythological works. In the latter the female nudes depart from Italian canons of proportion and constitute a quintessentially German prototype of notable sensuality. The present panel depicts the nymph of the Castalian spring, whose water was drunk by philosophers and poets in search of inspiration. The nymph lies on a thick grassy bank in an unnatural pose, her head leaning on her right arm, her body turned towards the viewer and her left leg crossed over. Behind her, a succession of receding planes create a sense of depth. The subject of the composition combines references to classical antiquity with the influence of Italian art. The nymphs pose recalls that of Giorgiones Venus in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, while Titians Venuses are suggested in the presence of the cartouche at the upper left corner that bears the text of a Latin poem. The quiver with arrows and the bow resting against the tree may refer to Diana the Huntress or to Cupid, who traditionally accompanies Venus.